The immunoregulatory mechanisms of carcinoma for its survival and development
1 Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
2 Immunity and Infection Research Centre, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V6H 3Z6, Canada
3 Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver, BC V6H 3Z6, Canada
4 Living Tumor Laboratory, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 2011, 30:12 doi:10.1186/1756-9966-30-12Published: 21 January 2011
The immune system in patients detects and eliminates tumor cells, but tumors still progress persistently. The mechanisms by which tumor cells survive under the pressure of immune surveillance are not fully understood. This review is to present the evidence from clinical studies, showing a significant correlation of clinicopathological features of carcinoma with: (1) the loss of classical human leukocyte antigen class I, (2) the up-regulation of non-classical human leukocyte antigen class I, pro-apoptotic Fas ligand and receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells I, and (3) the formation of immunosuppressive microenvironment by up-regulation of transforming growth factor-beta, Galectin-1, inhibitory ligand B7s, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and arginase, as well as by recruitment of tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. All of these factors may together protect carcinoma cells from the immune-cytotoxicity.